Crying hands: eugenics and deaf people in Nazi Germany
Durr, P. World war ii, deaf history of. Boudreault Eds. Durr, Patti. Genie Gertz and Patrick Boudreault. SAGE Knowledge. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and searches. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. World War II affected many nations and peoples all over the globe, especially in the Asian and European spheres, as well as in North America, yet little is known about the deaf experience during the war.
Let us apply outcome-based evaluation OBE to Schalock's tome on that topic. A second edition appearing in just six years indicates a successful outcome from the publisher's stakeholder perspective. However, that outcome probably reflects the external environment of enormous interest in OBE rather than "internal validity," meaning the book's ability to achieve its stated objective.
Schalock aimed to produce a "user friendly" tool for researchers and also for readers who are "neither program evaluators nor statisticians" Preface to the 1st edition, on p. From their perspective I doubt that outcome indicators would register positively, at least regarding writing style. The book leans to the pedantic, teeming with classification schemes represented in figures and tables, and each chapter ends with study questions.
While graduate students and researchers may value the conceptual distinctions and tolerate the rather abstract nature of examples, that is unlikely for policymakers and other OBE users. One wonders whether "input" resources were adequate.
Poor editing is revealed by extensive repetition and small, but annoying, typos and errors. Notably, I tried several of the web addresses that promised to be a valuable contribution leading to data sources in education, health care, disability, and other social services. Disappointingly, some addresses were wrong and some led only very indirectly to what the text had suggested.
Website accessibility was apparently not Schalock's concern. Unfortunately, the heavy style overwhelms a welcome message calling for a non-formalistic approach. Schalock reminds us that programmatic reality is extremely complex and, therefore, OBE researchers and users need a laid-back attitude my term, not the author's! I recommend Schalock's thought-provoking final chapter, "Future Scenarios.
In summary, for academically-inclined researchers, this book offers a viable reference-an up-to-date structured summary of various strands evolving under the OBE banner. However, my suggested "benchmark" for a user-friendly manual to help researchers navigate an actual OBE venture and to communicate about the research with, say, Board members and program staff of a social service agency, is the United Way of America's Measuring Program Outcomes: A Practical Approach Alexandria, VA: Author, Scott, Ronald W. Reviewed by Charles Goldman, Esq. This book is a book for providers of medical services.
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It is a "how to avoid malpractice" tome, not a disability rights book. The author gives many practical examples and provides training materials that service providers, such as rehabilitation therapists, would do well to read and absorb. However, the book is clearly lacking when it comes to the patient side of the equation, particularly when it comes to the disabled person. There are many scenarios for clinical documentation and patient records in legal proceedings. It is lamentable that nowhere is there any suggestion about making accommodations for a person with a disability.
Informed consent for a person with a disability may well mean having the document state it was read to. It may mean providing a qualified sign language interpreter for a hearing impaired person.
However, these concepts are totally missing from the book. On a most vital issue, DNR Do Not Resuscitate Orders, the author would be well advised to caution providers to get clear guidance from their regular attorney. The issue is one indigenous to state laws which vary as to what is required. This section needs major amplification. The author clearly knows his materials as the numerous examples attest. It would be nice if a second edition recognized that the patient with a disability has needs that may have an impact on the situation.
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This is a critical flaw. Reviewed by Marsha Saxton, Ph. Susan Sherwin has written another excellent book about women's health, this time together with a group of Canadian feminist health activists that includes physicians, lawyers, philosophers, social scientists, and genetics and community health experts. Using the tools of feminist health ethics, the book explores the themes of agency choice and autonomy self-direction in health care and it addresses the problems arising out of the dominant structures of Western medicine which tends to ignore the role of social conditions and focuses, instead, on the individual as the locus for medical intervention.
The book addresses a range of issues of importance to Disability Studies researchers including medicalization, diversity, genetic screening, and aging. In the spirit of feminist inquiry, the authors include their own personal perspectives sharing insights from their roles as patients in relationship to medical providers. The chapter that most captured my interest was "The Politics of Health: Geneticization Versus Health Promotion" in which Abby Lippman explores the innovations of the new genetic technologies that are being applied to diagnose, treat, and categorize health conditions previously identified in other ways.
With the recent completion of the human genome map, the pressure is on healthcare systems and practitioners to utilize and validate the new screening technologies. The new genetics is exemplary of the medicalization that Disability Studies often criticizes as one of the current bases of disability stigmatization: our flawed genes define and explain our difficulties.
Locating the problem within our molecular structures exonerates society from responsibility for justice. Lippman cautions us: "Offering prenatal testing to a woman does more than limit her choices about childbearing can she refuse it? On the collective level, too, it speaks loudly about the kinds of children we will welcome in society while more subtly transforming procreation from a process of giving life to one of giving genes" p. Interestingly, genetic testing and labeling have expanded the populations of people who are discriminated against in employment and in the private medical insurance system and, subsequently, protected by disability civil rights legislation in the United States further blurring the distinctions between those who are disabled and those who are nondisabled.
Stenager, Elsebeth; and Stenager, Egon. Disease, Pain, and Suicidal Behavior. In this very brief volume the authors, both physicians at hospitals in Denmark, provide a discussion of methodological problems in past studies of suicide and its relationship to physical and mental disabilities. There are separate chapters on mental disorders, neurological disorders, cancer, other somatic disorders, suicide attempts, and pain.
Librarika: Crying Hands: Eugenics and Deaf People in Nazi Germany
There are also a number of annotated tables summarizing previous studies, often from Scandinavia, and the authors' assessment of their accuracy. From the perspective of a Disability Studies proponent, this book presents several serious difficulties. First, it clearly is presented entirely within the medical model. Hence, we are treated to ignorant statements such as the assertion that people with spinal cord injuries are "primarily dependent on the help of other people and have reduced possibilities of education and raising families" p. Essentially, this book seems completely unaware of a vibrant disability rights movement to secure wheelchair access, better support to permit people with disabilities to become parents, and even the notion that there may be a social and political economy dimension to the problem.
More surprisingly, the text does not seem to succeed even on its own very narrow medical model terms. It has very little direct analysis and it confines itself, mostly, to evaluating previous studies of suicide. While one hardly expects physicians to analyze at length the implications of, say, Durkheim's theories of suicide for Twenty-First Century suicide prevention mechanisms, the almost complete lack of any kind of serious reflection is somewhat disconcerting.
Given their medical model paradigm, they do broach the issue as to whether some suicides should be prevented at all. Yet, even here, they fail to take any kind of cogent position. Had they even argued that those with severe somatic conditions would be better off committing suicide, at least one could say that the authors took a stand no matter how much disability rights advocates passionately disagreed with them.
Paragraph after paragraph repeating mortality rates from other scholars' studies simply will not do. Unfortunately, we are left with an excessively brief and poorly conceived work that does little to contribute to the literature on this crucially important question. While the authors correctly draw attention to the increased risk of suicide faced by people with a variety of disabilities, it will have to be left to others to write a more comprehensive, analytical account that addresses the complex issues at stake.
Stiker, Henri-Jacques. A History of Disability is a translation of the Corps infirmes et societes with an excellent foreword by David Mitchell and a helpful translator's note.
Crying hands : eugenics and deaf people in Nazi Germany
This edition also includes Stiker's preface to the edition which is an expanded but not revised version of the original publication in Six chapters, an epilogue, and a short appendix discuss concepts of disability from antiquity through the present. The title of the book is misleading. The original French title captures the content perfectly. Stiker himself, though trained as a historian, made a decision, outlined in his introduction, not to write a traditional history.
In fact, in the strongest and most ahistorical chapter, "The Birth of Rehabilitation," Stiker writes: "Readers will have seen that my objective has been to theorize" p. Readers should remember that, while foundational, this work is nearly twenty years old. Decisions had to be made in revising the work for publication and in making that edition available for a wider, English-speaking audience in Stiker explains, in the preface to the edition, that he left the text unchanged because if he had revised the edition in light of all of the scholarly literature that had since become available, the book would be unwieldy.
He did, however, update the footnotes to reflect some of the scholarship. It is a pity that it took nearly twenty years for an English translation of this key scholarship to become available. Now that we have it, and at a reasonable price in paperback, A History of Disability should be read by everyone interested in any aspect of Disability Studies and every library should own a copy.
Schools & Universities
The brilliant conceptualization of disability makes this an indispensable tool in Disability Studies. Stringer, Ernest T. Action Research: A Handbook for Practitioners. While not the first book to address action research, Stringer has written one of the most important books in this emerging approach to inquiry about humans in their communities.
Bulletin of the History of Medicine
Stringer goes beyond the notion of participation to elevate research to a social, democratic process driven by a strong ideology. Stringer introduces action research as a purposive, interpretive process of inquiry, positioned in a community context, which is founded on five principles: empowerment, democracy, equity, liberty, and life enhancement. He then goes on to set a framework for conducting research that is comprised of three elements: looking, thinking, and acting, all of which are conducted interactively in a spiraling fashion, in which all parts of the research process inform all of the other parts.
Embedded within this multidimensional ideology Stringer paints action research as a process in which community problems are identified, examined, and systematically addressed. In concert with emerging "human inquiry" approaches all participants in the research process are equally valued for their roles with the researcher as facilitator.
Much time is spent on describing the role of facilitation and how it purportedly differs from the traditional role that the researcher has taken in positivist approaches to systematic inquiry. Moreover, it is critical in community action research to identify the stakeholders in the problem identified and to engage all stakeholders, even in the presence of dissent, in the research process and outcome. Thus, although Stringer notes that this book is an instructional text for practitioners, this reviewer suggests that its strength lies in its detailed and in-depth treatment of the social-political process of research.